Article XII, Section 1 of the Texas Constitution
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Adopted February 15, 1876:
No private corporation shall be created except by general laws.
This section is unnecessary because Article III, Section 56(b) generally prohibits "local or special" laws.
- Miller v. Davis, 150 S.W.2d 973, 978 (Tex. 1941) ("Within the meaning of the above constitutional provisions, corporations are, generally speaking, divided into two classes, public corporations and private corporations. A corporation is public if it is created for public purposes only. In other words, a public corporation is one 'connected with the administration of the government, and the interests and franchises of which are the exclusive property and domain of the government itself.' A private corporation, generally speaking, is any corporation not classed as public. Stated in another way, a private corporation is one created for private, as distinguished from purely public, purposes.")
- Union Cent. Life Ins. Co. v. Chowning, 26 S.W. 982, 984 (Tex. 1894) ("Appellant's counsel assert that the article in question is in conflict with article 1, § 3, of the constitution of the state of Texas, which is in these words: 'All free men when they form . . . .' It is not shown just how the law violates this section, and, indeed, it would be difficult to imagine how a corporation which has no natural rights could be said to be entitled to such rights and privileges as grow out of the formation of a social compact. It is the creature of law, and entitled to just such rights as the law grants to it. When granted, such rights are protected from invasion the same as the rights of any natural person.")
- Vernon's Annotated Constitution of the State of Texas (this multi-volume and up-to-date resource is available at all law libraries and many municipal libraries)
- The Texas State Constitution: A Reference Guide (this one-volume resource is available at most law libraries and some municipal libraries)
- The Constitution of the State of Texas: An Annotated and Comparative Analysis (this two-volume resource is available at most law libraries and some municipal libraries)
- Constitution of the State of Texas (1876) (this resource is published and maintained by the University of Texas School of Law)
- Amendments to the Texas Constitution Since 1876 (this resource is published and regularly updated by the Legislative Council)
- Reports Analyzing Proposed Amendments (this resource is published and regularly updated by the Legislative Reference Library)